What Is Computer Hardware?

Computer hardware refers to all physical components that comprise a computer system, including its case, central processing unit (CPU), random access memory (RAM), monitor, mouse, keyboard, data storage capacity, graphics card sound card and motherboard.

Most computer systems contain removable media devices such as CD, DVD or hard disk drives to store information such as images, audio and video files.


A motherboard is the central printed circuit board (PCB) for connecting all computer components together. It serves as the backbone, nervous system and circulatory system all-in-one; physically supporting individual components while serving as control center while moving voltage.

Motherboards house the CPU, memory, hard drives, optical drive, video card and other ports needed for operation as well as handling data connections via USB and other interfaces.

A motherboard helps reduce effort duplication by connecting all of a computer’s components together, saving both time and energy for users. Furthermore, it simplifies computer operations by housing Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) and Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI) firmware chips which improve efficiency during computer operation.


Your computer’s CPU (Central Processing Unit) is responsible for all its processing needs, from displaying images on screen, sending emails and connecting to the internet. A CPU works by fetching instructions from RAM, decoding them and then executing them before returning back into RAM for more instructions.

The Control Unit (CU) collects instructions and sends them to an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU), which performs mathematical operations, and input/output devices. Furthermore, it oversees memory as well as gateways which transfer information between primary memory and secondary storage such as hard drives.

Many central processing units (CPUs) employ a clock signal to regulate their operation, producing regular electrical pulses at an agreed upon rate. Higher clock speeds enable CPUs to process more instructions in a shorter amount of time.


RAM (random access memory) is a temporary storage solution designed to help your computer complete tasks quickly. When opening programs or starting games, RAM temporarily stores any necessary data required by its central processing unit (CPU) for completion of said task.

As soon as an application closes, its data moves from RAM into long-term storage such as your hard drive for safekeeping. This releases space for more data to be stored for future access when needed.

Modern computers utilize two types of random-access memory (RAM), known as static random-access memory (SRAM) and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). SRAM stores data using six transistor memory cells while in DRAM it uses transistor-capacitor pairs such as MOSFETs for storage purposes.

Hard Drive

Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) are computer hardware used to store data magnetic platters that spin at speeds between 5,400 RPM and higher, providing quick access to any stored information on them.

HDDs consist of a spindle, disk platters and actuator arm with read/write heads which move across them. Information is read by magnetizing small spots on each platter while new digits can be written by changing magnetization levels of spots on those platters.

Hard drives come in various sizes, including 2.5-inch and 3.5-inch drives. Laptop users tend to favor 2.5-inch hard drives while desktop PC users often prefer larger 3.5-inch drives.

Disk Array Controller

Disk Array Controllers (DAC) are computer components that allow hard disk drives to be organized into logical devices known as volumes and to provide an intermediary layer between physical disks and their operating systems.

Controllers come in two forms – either as internal cards that sit within computers, or external peripheral devices – depending on your performance and capacity requirements for your RAID system.

Modern business storage systems demand controllers that can process data at high speeds while performing actions and creating RAID parity. Furthermore, they should also be capable of processing incoming data quickly while managing it correctly – including determining which types of files belong where.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *